Earlier this month, Elizabeth Mrema was appointed executive secretary of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), making her the first female from Africa to lead the intergovernmental body.
The CBD was created by a UN treaty, signed into force by nations in 1992, and helps to set international targets to save biodiversity.
Mrema, a legal representative from Tanzania, now based in Montreal, Canada, takes on her new role after more than a years in leadership positions at the United Nations Environment Programme– and at a crucial time. She will manage the creation of a brand-new international biodiversity contract for the next decade, which is currently being drafted. The accord was expected to be signed at a meeting in Kunming, China, in October, but this has actually been postponed until next year because of the coronavirus pandemic.
The previous worldwide biodiversity targets, signed in 2010 and called the Aichi targets, are widely accepted have actually failed to stop species loss. Some researchers are now renewing calls for a single target to halt species extinction Others worry that a termination target would neglect other important goals of the contracts, such as making sure that benefits from biological resources are shared.
The new coronavirus, which came from animals prior to it spread to individuals, has also brought renewed calls to stop the trading of wildlife, provoking long-simmering stress in between those who wish to save types, and those promoting their sustainable use.
Mrema spoke to Nature about how the pandemic has actually influenced negotiations and the obstacles ahead.
How has the pandemic impacted the biodiversity agenda?
One could state that I have actually been appointed at a bad time for biodiversity, considering that the entire world is simply emerging from, or still in, lockdown since of the COVID-19 pandemic. But at the exact same time, I see it as a major chance, as biodiversity is being gone over more than ever previously. There is higher awareness of the impact that human activities can have on nature, and of the connection in between human health and biodiversity.
Our interference, through deforestation, agricultural expansion, livestock increase and environment fragmentation, has actually exposed wild animals and brought them into closer contact with people, which has led to the spillover of pathogens and zoonotic illness, human-to-human transmission through trade and tourism, and the explosive pandemic we presently discover ourselves in.
These are not new problems to the convention. However the pandemic has brought these issues to the fore, and has highlighted conversations about how to prevent future pandemics. I still think about 2020 to be a very year for biodiversity, as we invest it preparing, talking, creating awareness and showing the links. 2021 will be the year for the deal.
Do you concur with calls to ban wildlife markets and trade?
Closing damp markets and prohibiting wildlife trading completely would negatively affect communities who depend upon wild animals. For centuries these communities have been dealing with wild species, saving them, and consuming them sustainably. The problem is us city dwellers, who have actually interfered with that unified environment by bringing wild animals out of the forests and the bush to the cities, to satiate our selfish dietary choices. The customers and purchasers of wild animals are not the bad people; they are the upscale neighborhoods in the cities.
A total restriction would also unlock to unlawful sell wildlife. Rather, we need more sanitary practices in wet markets that continue to run, and regulated wildlife trade, within the structure of the Convention on International Sell Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. We need to guarantee the sustainable intake of species for those communities who count on this, while also curbing prohibited trade. It is a delicate balance.
Some researchers have called for the CBD to embrace an international, measurable target based upon types termination. Is this an excellent concept?
If the biodiversity neighborhood succeeds in creating such a target that resonates with all of us, in the manner in which the climate-change neighborhood has, that would be outstanding. However it will be difficult to come up with one response because of the diverse nature of the problems on the biodiversity program. Unless we can develop a target that resolves the drivers of biodiversity loss, we require to tread carefully. However if we are successful, that will be the best result possible, since then it ends up being a song everyone will sing, which everyone can line up with to deliver that a person essential message.
How do you expect geopolitical stress that have developed during the pandemic to impact the settlements?
We hope that, in spite of any worldwide geopolitical stress, by speaking in the name of nature, we will prosper in bringing individuals together. Countries can not handle these problems by themselves. We need international cooperation.
Is the financial crisis in the wake of the pandemic likely to affect the new contract?
The significant difficulty now is that countries are dealing with economic recession caused by COVID-19 and their focus will be on financial recovery. Federal governments might not have the ability to contribute as lots of resources, both human and monetary, towards carrying out the international diversity framework we are preparing as they would have had there not been a pandemic.
We need to guarantee that the economic healing develops into it a green economy and sustainability. We need nations to build back better, prioritizing biodiversity in their stimulus plans and stopping the incentives that have actually caused additional deterioration of biodiversity, which could also help to avoid future pandemics. Some countries have already come out plainly in support of this. For instance, in May, the European Commission adopted a biodiversity technique for 2030, which incorporates biodiversity loss, climate mitigation and adaptation into their healing strategies.
How will you guarantee that you don’t lose momentum by next year?
My number-one goal is to get more stakeholders engaged and speaking about the significance of biodiversity and nature, and learning about the effect of human activities on biodiversity loss, and on climate modification, changes in land use, contamination and invasive species.
These stakeholders will assist us by putting favorable pressure on federal governments to agree on an ambitious and transformative, post-2020 global biodiversity framework, and can then help us in carrying out the contract. We do not desire Kunming just to be a meeting of environmental communities, but to include youth, organisations, regional communities, cities and municipalities.
These efforts are continuing in the virtual world. We have had more consultations and more time to prepare and engage throughout this period. I am seeing a lot of assistance and dedication, but for now these are only words. Will they translate into tangible, measurable, smart actions that will make a distinction? That keeps me up at night.
The existing biodiversity targets have largely stopped working. How will you guarantee that the next accord does not also?
It is very clear that we will fail, or not be able to attain all the Aichi targets. The reasons for those failures are now understood, and we are building those lessons into the draft global biodiversity structure. Unlike the previous objectives, the significant difference this time is that all stakeholders, consisting of youth, organisation and Native groups, have contributed to numerous versions of the draft.
The parties are still the decision-makers who will lastly adopt the structure, but they have actually realized that they need the engagement of other groups throughout the negotiations and in implementation.
Also, while the concentrate on carrying out the Aichi targets involved environmental ministries and departments, this time, health, farming, fisheries, forestry, preparation and finance ministries are getting included.
This interview has actually been edited for length and clearness.